By Etienne Nodet
Translated through J. Edward Crowley. This radical reconstruction of the origins of Judaism begins by way of staring at that Josephus's resources at the early heritage of Israel don't believe the Bible and that the oldest rabbinic traditions express no signal of a biblical origin. one other attention-grabbing query is raised through the Samaritan declare, on the time of Antiochus Epiphanes, they'd only in the near past acquired the Sabbath from the Jews. From such information, Nodet creates a entire line of argument that finds significant resources of Judaism, as symbolized within the subtitle of his paintings: Joshua used to be the person who confirmed in the neighborhood in writing a statute and a legislations on the Shechem meeting, whereas the Mishnah used to be the last word metamorphosis of traditions introduced from Babylon and mixed with Judaean influences.
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Extra info for A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua to the Mishnah
Its outcome, once the risks of dissolution were overcome, was the definitive establishment within Judaism of the centrality of the Torah and the Temple. This last statement is certainly true, though vague, and has the merit of trying to discover the stakes involved by looking at the consequences of the events instead of their causes, since the facts and the exact circumstances are not directly accessible. In this connection, some contradictory statements should be noted. 1 Maccabees, which makes no mention of any high priest at the time when the persecutions of Antiochus began, is the book of the foundation of the Hasmonaean dynasty (using the terminology of Josephus): the priest Mattathias revolts, his son Judas reconquers the Temple, then his brothers Jonathan and Simon become high priests, strategoi and ethnarchs, continue the fighting, and establish relations with Rome and Sparta.
The allusions to the Sadducees are briefer still: outside of the banquet of Hyrcanus and the summary notices, which will be examined later, the only person whom Josephus calls a Sadducee is Ananus the Younger, who around 62 CE had James, brother of Jesus, put to death for having broken the Law (Ant. 199-200). 162), and need not occupy us here, at least not immediately. 67-69 Josephus recounts briefly that John Hyrcanus, having assumed power, provoked jealousy because of his prosperity; he, nevertheless, lived happily for thirty-three years, but his sons were faced with revolts.
If this episode fades away as fictional, however, there is no longer anything which would appear to guarantee so ancient a date for these origins. 4. From Alexander to Antiochus IV Epiphanes After the death of Alexander in 323, the situation in the region was rather confused, because of rivalries among the claimants: the satrap of Egypt, Ptolemy, wished to control Phoenicia and occupied Coele-Syria including Palestine three times, but twice had to fall back immediately. In 1. From Cyrus to the Mishnah 39 301, following the battle of Ipsus, the empire of Alexander was gradually split up into four kingdoms, including the Lagides in Egypt and the Seleucids in Transeuphrates.
A Search for the Origins of Judaism: From Joshua to the Mishnah by Etienne Nodet