By Edwin A. Lyon
Recipient of the 1994 Anne B. and James B. McMillan Prize
This complete examine presents a background of latest Deal archaeology within the Southeast within the Nineteen Thirties and early Nineteen Forties and makes a speciality of the initiatives of the Federal Emergency reduction management, the Civil Works management, the Works development management, the Tennessee Valley Authority, the nationwide Park carrier, and the Smithsonian Institution.
using fundamental resources together with correspondence and unpublished stories, Lyon demonstrates the nice value of the hot Deal initiatives within the historical past of southeastern and North American archaeology. New Deal archaeology remodeled the perform of archaeology within the Southeast and created the foundation for the self-discipline that exists this day. With the present emphasis on curation and repatriation, archaeologists and historians will locate this quantity precious in reconstructing the background of the tasks that generated the numerous collections that now fill our museums.
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Additional resources for A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology
Mound One was a small sand mound containing twenty-seven secondary burials in very poor condition. Pottery was of the Safety Harbor type of muck and sand-tempered ware~ The large amount of European artifacts found, including thousands of glass beads, convinced Stirling that the mound was built in the middle of the seventeent~ century. Mound Two, 6 feet high and measuring 63 by 65 feet, had been constructed as a mortuary mound, with a building later placed on top. The remains of a mortuary temple contained more than thirty burials, most of them cremated.
His field supervisors ranged from well trained to untrained. Most of the reconnaissance and many of the excavations were carried out by A. T. Jackson, who had no formal education in archaeology. Field methods were crude, with concentration on mounds and burials and little interest in stratigraphy. Between 1920 and 1935 University of Texas field crews dug in more than 125 sites in east Texas, most in the northeastern part of the state. Pearce published several brief articles on this work, including an overview of the archaeology of east Texas in 1932, and Jackson published a number of articles on work in northeast Texas.
20 Southeastern Archaeology before the Depression Gates P. Thruston published Antiquities of Tennessee in 1890. In 1924 P. E. Cox, the state archaeologist, completed a preliminary survey of Wolf and Obed rivers in Pickett County. The Tennessee State Archaeological Society was organized in 1924 with a membership of approximately sixty. 65 The University of Texas worked in east Texas before the 1930s. James E. Pearce, the first chairman of the Department of Anthropology, had little training in archaeology but understood the importance of archaeology in Texas.
A New Deal for Southeastern Archaeology by Edwin A. Lyon