By Michael A. Jochim
As an archaeologist with fundamental learn and coaching event in North American arid lands, i've got constantly came across the ecu Stone Age distant and impenetrable. My preliminary advent, in the course of a survey direction on international prehis tory, demonstrated that (for me, a minimum of) it consisted of extra cultures, dates, and named software forms than any undergraduate should need to keep in mind. i didn't be aware of a lot, yet I knew there have been larger issues i may be doing on a Saturday evening. In any occasion, after that I by no means heavily entertained any concept of pur suing learn on Stone Age Europe-that direction was once sufficient for me. that is a pity, too, simply because Paleolithic Europe-especially within the overdue Pleistocene and early Holocene-was the scene of innovative human adaptive switch. Iron ically, it all used to be amenable to research utilizing exactly the similar types and analytical instruments i stopped up spending the higher a part of 20 years utilising within the nice Basin of western North the US. again then, after all, few have been wondering the overdue Paleolithic or Me solithic in such phrases. Typology, class, and chronology have been the order of the day, because the textual content for my undergraduate path mirrored. Jochim obviously bridled below I on the job of gaining knowledge of those chronotaxonomic mysteries, but he was once keenly conscious of their limitations-in specific, their silence on how person assemblages will be attached as a part of better nearby subsis tence-settlement systems.
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Additional info for A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic
A problem with such studies is again one of currency: raw material quality is difficult to assess in relation to energy costs and other factors (Jochim, 1989). Raw material acquisition is conceptually a separate domain from that of food choice and they cannot really be modeled together because of the incomparability of utility measures. Ironically, stone collection often seems to be embedded within foraging trips among living hunter-gatherers (Binford, 1976). 2. Information Information is, perhaps, the most interesting currency, if only because it has been relatively neglected in most ecological studies, with a few notable exceptions.
Resources could be separately ranked in terms of hides, useful bone and antler, and other materials, just as they may need to be separately ranked according to efficiency and reliability of procurement. Fulfillment of these nonfood needs, like that of nutritional requirements, 22 CHAPTER 2 could be assumed to be embedded within the food choices. Subsequent evaluation of predicted resource use could determine if these needs appear to be met. Other material needs are unrelated to foods. Stone raw material, wood, fibers, medicines, and mineral pigments may all be considered vital and their procurement may consume considerable time and energy.
Individ- THE CHANGING THEORETICAL LANDSCAPE 19 ual resource variability can certainly be plausibly simulated (Mithen, 1990), but we might also simply establish rankings among different sets of resources in terms of their variability. We could attempt to understand the general structure of variations in resources through time and space and its implications for patterns of site reoccupations and redundancy of association among particular sites, activities, and seasons-to create a subsistence landscape reflecting the structure of variability Oochim, 1991).
A Hunter—Gatherer Landscape: Southwest Germany in the Late Paleolithic and Mesolithic by Michael A. Jochim